The Assassin's Creed series may diverge from actual history when examining its characters, but its setting and collectables embrace a lot of what you'd find in a text book. Read up on famous landmarks, people, art and more. But don't write a paper about that time da Vinci helped you out of a jam with his flying machine, unless it's for Creative Writing class.
The single-shard universe of CCP's EVE Online relies heavily on its economy, an infrastructure that is maintained and managed by those that play the game. Depending on the role you select in the MMO, you could learn about supply and demand, accounting and how trade markets perform and react to environmental disturbances. Other MMOs, such as World of Warcraft, offer a basic introduction to these concepts as well.
Utilizing components that range from simplistic to ludicrous, Kerbal asks its players to perform the seemingly simple task of getting to space. Build your flying machine, compensating for weight, propulsion, centrifugal force and more. It's not a completely accurate representation of real world components and physics, but it teaches players the basic concepts (and it's a lot more fun to play with the basics than read about it in a stuff old text!).
Utilize your investigation skills to perform your job as border agent and learn about political strife and social issues in the independent darling Papers, Please. The game acts as a bonus philosophy class, presenting players with moral choices in the face of a strict government ruler.
Blackbar is a relatively simple puzzle game that becomes increasingly challenging. In the iOS/Android game you read a story about a dystopian world where much of the detail has been redacted and it's up to you to fill in the blanks using contextual clues based on sentence structure and common language usage.
Okay, we said no obvious choices, but SimCity offers too much not to be recommended. Virtually any iteration of the game (be it the newest in the series or the classic SimCity 2000) can teach players about the fundamentals of political science. SimCity examines it all: study of the state as well as the management, politics and policies of the government.
"Minecraft for logic and circuit design. I'm an electrical engineer by profession, and the redstone mechanics of Minecraft can do a remarkable job of teaching people about various types of logic circuits. With redstone, you can make clocks, delay buffers, inverters, edge detectors, nearly every kind of logic gate (AND, OR, XOR, etc etc), and much more. A lot of it actually relates very closely to things like FPGA and HDL coding." – DamnDirtyApe (Reader)
"I find that, despite being obvious, Civilization checks a lot of boxes. There are so many parallels between the game and actual geopolitics. Although I wish the diplomacy game was more rich, rather than boiling down to binary logic. The AI, after all, is aware of the fact that the game has victory conditions and it will often do irrational things in order to secure victory. That's always been an arbitrary thing about the series I've never really liked. You can't just be a civilization that does modestly well for itself and its people. You have to change the world, for better or worse, in order to 'win.'" – Mule (Reader)